Cosmic dust, its composition, and its properties are little known to a person unrelated to space exploration. However, such a phenomenon makes its mark on our planet! Let us consider in more detail where it comes from and how it affects life on earth. Cosmic dust is microscopic metals, crushed remnants of asteroids, and frozen liquid particles found everywhere in the universe.
The idea of space dust
Space dust on Earth is most often found in specific layers of the ocean floor, ice sheets in the planet’s Polar Regions, peat deposits, inaccessible places in the desert, and meteorite craters. The size of this material is below 200 nm, which makes its study difficult.
Usually, the term cosmic dust implies a demarcation between stars and middle stars. All this, however, is very conditional. The most convenient option for studying such a phenomenon is considered to be studying dust from space at the edge of the solar system or beyond.
The reason for this difficult approach to the study of the object is that the properties of an alien change significantly when they are close to a star like a sun.
Theories about the origin of cosmic dust
Cosmic dust currents constantly attack the earth’s surface. The question arises where this material comes from. Its origins are causing a great deal of controversy among experts in the field.
There are such theories about the formation of universal dust:
- Degeneration of celestial bodies … Some scientists believe that cosmic dust is nothing more than the result of the destruction of asteroids, comets, and meteorites.
- Remains of a planetary cloud … There is a version where cosmic dust is traced to particles in the primary planet cloud. However, this assumption raises some doubts due to the fragility of the finely dispersed material.
- Consequences of the explosion of stars … As a result of this process, according to some experts, there will be a powerful emission of energy and gas leading to the formation of global dust.
- Residual phenomena after the formation of new planets … So-called construction waste have become the basis for dust formation.
According to some studies, a certain part of the constituent of cosmic dust formed before the formation of the solar system, which makes this substance even more interesting for further research. This is worth noting when reporting and reporting such an extraterrestrial phenomenon.
Main types of space dust
There is no specific classification of types of cosmic dust. Subspecies can be distinguished by visual characteristics and the location of these particles.
Consider seven groups of space dust in the atmosphere, varying according to external indicators:
- Irregular gray debris. These are residual phenomena after collisions of meteorites, comets, and asteroids with a size not exceeding 100-200 nm.
- Particles of ash-like and ash-like formation. Such objects are difficult to identify only by external signals because they have undergone changes after passing through the Earth’s atmosphere.
- The grains are round in shape, which is similar to the parameters of black sand. On the outside, they look like magnetite powder (magnetic iron ore).
- Small black rings with a characteristic glow. Their diameter does not exceed 20 nm, which makes their study a difficult task.
- Larger balls of the same color with a rough surface. Their size reaches 100 nm and allows a thorough study of their composition.
- Balls of a certain color with the predominance of black and white tones with gas filling. These space particles are composed of a silicate base.
- Balls with different structures are made of glass and metal. Such elements are characterized by a microscope dimension within 20 nm.
According to astronomical location, 5 groups of space dust are distinguished:
- Dust in intergalactic space. This vision can distort the dimensions of the distances in certain calculations and can change the color of space objects.
- Formations within the Galaxy. The space within these limits is always filled with dust from the destruction of cosmic bodies.
- Content is concentrated between the stars. It is most interesting due to the presence of shells and hardcore.
- Dust is located near a specific planet. It is usually found in the circular system of the celestial body.
- Dust clouds around the stars. They orbit the star’s own orbit, reflect its light and create a nebula.
Three groups according to the total weight of micro-parts look like this:
- Metal band. Representatives of this subspecies weigh more than five grams per cubic centimeter and their base consists mainly of iron.
- Silicate-based group. The base is transparent glass with a gravity of about three grams per cubic centimeter.
- Mixed group. The very name of this association indicates both glass and iron in the structure of the particles. The base also contains magnetic elements.
Four groups according to the internal structure of cosmic dust particles:
- Hollow-filled balls. This species is often found in places where meteorites fall.
- Balls in metallurgy. This subspecies has a core of cobalt and nickel, as well as a shell that has oxidized.
- Bolts with uniform addition. Such grains have oxidized the shell.
- Balls with a silicate base. The presence of gas containment gives them the appearance of normal slag and sometimes foam.
It should be borne in mind that these classifications are very arbitrary, but they serve as a specific reference point for identifying dust from space.
Composition and properties of cosmic dust components
Let’s take a closer look at what cosmic dust is made of. There is a definite problem in determining the composition of these particles. Unlike gaseous materials, solids have a continuous spectrum with relatively few bands that are blurred. Therefore, cosmic dust particles will be difficult to detect.
The composition of cosmic dust can be considered with examples of the main models of this material. These include the following subspecies:
- Icons, where the structure contains a core with refractory properties. The shell of such a type consists of light elements. Large particles contain atoms with elements of magnetic properties.
- Model MRN, its composition is determined by the presence of silicate and graphite included.
- Oxide cosmic dust is based on silica-rich oxides of magnesium, iron, calcium, and silicon.
General classification by chemical composition of cosmic dust:
- Bolts with metallization. Such particles contain elements such as nickel.
- Metal balls with iron and nickel free.
- Rings are made of silicone.
- Irregularly shaped nickel-iron balls.
More specifically, the composition of cosmic dust can be considered in the example found in the ocean floor, sediments and glaciers. Their formula differs little from each other. The results of a seabed study are spheres with silicate and a metal base with the presence of chemical elements such as nickel and cobalt. Particles with aluminum, silicon, and magnesium were also found in the depths of the water body.
The soil is fertile for the presence of cosmic matter. A particularly large number of bullets have been found in places where meteorites fall. They are based on nickel and iron, as well as all kinds of minerals such as troilite, cohenite, steatite, and other components.
Glaciers also hide extraterrestrials in the form of dust in their crumbs. Silicon, iron, and nickel form the basis of the spheres found. All processed particles were grouped into 10 clearly defined groups.
Difficulties in determining the composition of a studied object and distinguishing it from impurities of earthly origin leave this question open for further research.
The effect of cosmic dust on important processes
The effects of this substance have not been fully studied by experts, which offers great potential for further activities in this direction. At a certain height, with the help of a rocket, a special belt was found consisting of space dust. This gives rise to claims that such extraterrestrials affect some of the processes that take place on Earth.
The effect of cosmic dust on the upper atmosphere
Recent studies suggest that the amount of cosmic dust may influence the change in the upper atmosphere. This process is very significant because it leads to certain fluctuations in the planet’s climate characteristics.
A lot of dust from asteroid collisions fills the space around our planet. Its amount reaches almost 200 tons per day, which according to scientists can only understand the consequences of it.
The most sensitive to this attack, according to the same experts, is the northern hemisphere, where the climate is exposed to cold and moisture.
The effects of space dust on cloud formation and climate change have not yet been adequately studied. New research in this field raises more and more questions, the answers to which have not yet been received.
The effect of dust from space on the transformation of ocean color
Radiation of space dust with the solar wind causes these particles to fall to the ground. Statistics show that the lightest of the three isotopes of helium in large quantities passes through dust particles from space into the ocean.
The absorption of elements from space by minerals of pheromanganic origin served as the basis for the formation of individual metals on the ocean floor.
Currently, the amount of manganese in the areas near the polar ring is limited. All this is because cosmic dust does not reach the sea in those areas due to ice sheets.
The effect of cosmic dust on the composition of the waters of the ocean
If we look at the glaciers in Antarctica, they are striking in the number of meteorites found in them and the presence of cosmic dust, which is a hundred times higher than the normal background.
Excessive concentrations of the same helium-3, precious metals in the form of cobalt, platinum, and nickel, make it possible to state with certainty the disturbance of space dust in the composition of the ice sheet. At the same time, the material of an alien is original in its original form but not diluted by the ocean, which in itself is a unique phenomenon.
According to some scientists, the amount of cosmic dust in such peculiar glaciers over the past million years has been in the hundreds of billions of meteorite formations. During the warming period, these shields melt and carry elements of cosmic dust into the world’s oceans.