Plant; what is? Human hands do not touch everything that surrounds us – this is all called nature, and nature is different plants. It is divided into five kingdoms: protozoa, bacteria, plants, fungi, and animals. Plants – are organisms that can process the solar energy of the rays for their cells into building materials. This process was called photosynthesis. This process occurs in individual plant cells – chloroplasts contain a green pigment – chlorophyll; in plants, it stains stems and leaves. In this process, inorganic substances (carbon dioxide and water), under the influence of sunlight, turn into organic substances (starch and sugar); this is the substance for building plant cells. At the same time, the plant world releases oxygen that we need to breathe. From all of the above, they called the “plant world” or “vegetation.”
Large plants have roots, stems, and leaves; such a stem is called a shoot. But in trees, the branch is called the trunk. The roots and leaves are called the breadwinners of the plant. The roots absorb moisture from the minerals, allowing them to remain on the ground, and photosynthesis occurs in the leaves. Some plants have developed ways to protect themselves from various herbivores: the stems and leaves of plants serve as protection. Leaves like henbane and wormwood can be bitter, stinging, or sharp and hard like mussels. Some plants, such as rose hips, are armed with thorns or spines. All these protection methods they need to reduce the consumption of animals or humans. There are also plants; their poisonous entry into the body often leads to the body’s death. With this type of protection, they prolong their existence on earth.
All plants are different in appearance and name; some of them we call herbs, others trees—for example, a treeAre plants characterized by perennial stems. If you look at the cross-section of the trunk, you can see that the middle of the box is drier and darker – this is a dead wood core. Closer to the edge, the wood becomes wet and light; this is called sapwood, living wood, through which minerals and water penetrate: into the roots, branches, and leaves. Sapwood and heartwood xylem – occupies the base of the tree trunk, surrounded by Basti – where nutrients (starch and sugar) are transported from the leaves to the roots and other parts and vice versa. Cells like bast form the dead bark that protects the outer layer of the trunk. Between the xylem and the bast is a layer of thin cells, which form wood by internal division and by external division of cells, bast is obtained. This process is called cambium.
Height of trees
On average, 20-30 meters, and among them, there are massive trunks that reach 100-200 meters, and of course, there are dwarf trees, whose height is 50 centimeters.
Shrubs, unlike tree trunks, have several boxes, the shoots of the shrub branch out above the surface of the ground, and the main compartment of the shrub is absent. These shrubs include lilacs, nuts, and more. Such plants are undersized with lignified roots and branches, hidden underground, called shrubs. Refers to bushes of heather, blueberry, and lingonberry (the properties of lingonberry are enormous, these are beneficial berries for the body). Many bushes tolerate spreading over a soil slope. If you plant a rose, many of the same bushes will grow from one scrub in a few years; they easily take root in the ground without human intervention.